1) On average what % of B2B (business to business) trade sales involve credit terms?
2) In companies that sell their  products or services based on payment at a later date ,
Accounts Receivable on average makes up what % of their total assets?

3) In your company where is the credit function located and  who does it report to?

4) How do you measure the performance of your credit function?

5)  What is the greatest source of return from the investment made in the credit function?

My Answers…What About In Your Company?

1) 80 to 90 % or more of B2B Sales involve credit terms (payment at a later date) and as commercial lenders have cut back on business lending the use of trade credit has grown. In the U.S., as of Sept. 09,  the spread  between business to business trade credit and commercial lending had grown by nearly $100 billion since the end of 2008.

In a recent on-line posting Simon Groves, Experiential Marketing Manager at Atradius and  based in Cardiff, wrote "In tough times, the use of trade credit goes up and not down despite the fact that there's the additional risk of non-payment. A recent Atradius survey on the economic crisis, covering 3500 companies in 20 countries, showed that in all but six of those countries the use of credit had risen during the economic downturn. What's behind the rise in the use of credit as the medium for sales? There's probably an element of rejuvenating flagging markets, but in the main, it's to fill the gap left by the lack of bank lending available to buyers." The Atradius Economic Crisis Report can be downloaded from www.atradius.com. It makes for interesting reading.

2) Accounts receivable (A/R) is  one of if not the largest asset of a company selling on credit terms. On average the A/R represents  40% of total assets and as more trade credit is extended it can only increase in size. The A/R is also one of the most liquid assets that of a business,  being but one step removed from money in the bank.  Short term money due from customers, the A/R is far more than just an accounting transaction involving the billing of customers or a journal entry on the balance sheet; it represents the very reason why any business exists… the profitable sale of goods and services. The management and the condition of A/R has  a direct implication and effect on cash flow and  on what is often the most profitable sales, that of  repeat sales to established customers. Consider the cost difference between finding new customers to sell to and additional sales to existing credit customers. And that in a tight economy new customers are harder than ever to find making existing customers  ever more valuable.

Debits and credits are accounting terms used to record credit sales and payment on those sales but the creation of A/R and of its proper management are sales related.

3) In many companies the Credit and A/R Management function is still found in accounting and reports to the CFO or Finance department, but the only reason that the costs involved with trade credit are incurred is to acquire profitable sales that would otherwise be lost by having the ability to sell to customers who won't or can't pay at the time of purchase.
Credit Approval and the management of the resulting A/R is primarily a sales support function and as such should be located within or in close proximity to Sales, but it should not report to sales.

In the course of approving credit sales and then working with the issues involving past due payments , the credit function interfaces with just about every facet of the business operation. It deals directly  with customers (new and established), sales, billing, A/P, and other internal functions as well as with vendors and suppliers. It has access to information and insights that if understood and used can help direct marketing and sales efforts toward specific types of customers or markets. The credit function knows who is buying and paying.

Purchasing managers  need to keep on top of changes affecting the supply of products and materials. Now you may be thinking that sellers/suppliers extend credit to buyers and not the other way around and you'd be correct, but a supplier's credit worthiness or lack of it can adversely effect its downline customers. James Early, of Marsh Trade Credit in Croydon, UK recently wrote, " One must understand the supply chain up the line also. An example (in the UK) would be the retailer Zavvi who failed at the end of last year as a direct result of the failure of Woolworths/EUK. Zavvi's main supplier was EUK and when the Woolworths group failed they suddenly found themselves in the position of having to pay the administrators for the stocks they already had on credit. Then they were unable to secure new supplies on credit terms, of best selling titles in the Christmas market!.".

The cost or loss resulting from a key supplier failing can also adversely effect its customers. The credit function can provide an initial and then on-going investigation and review of key suppliers.  And of course there is the cash flow resulting from the management of the A/R and its impact on purchasing being able to secure the best deal from suppliers by being able to meet or exceed their payment requirements.The credit function has a role to play in supporting the purchasing function.

The credit function can also support the operations function by identifying and reporting "areas of opportunity for improvement" throughout the entire business chain  thus bringing about new efficiencies that result in lower costs of doing business for everyone, including customers and suppliers.

It often seems as if the best input from participants at training programs and seninars  comes during a break and so it was recently in Phoenix. The group was made up mostly of Sales, Operations and Finance managers from the Floor Covering Industry. The program was on the copyrighted Profit System of B2B Credit and how it can best contribute to corporate profitability. During the lunch break an operations manager based on the West Coast and working for an international company  told how she had once been the credit manager; how in dealing with approving credit lines (never limits) and in dealing with past due issues (not collections) she found that she interfaced with customers, sales, finance, accounting, billing, the warehouse, transportation,vendors, and other areas of the business internally and externally. She went on to say that from her position as the credit manager she could identify inefficiencies that were driving up costs for the entire supply chain including customers and how she kept pointing out these areas in need of improvement and how that  led to her promotion to operations.

Credit Managers can directly contribute to new efficiencies throughout the entire business chain of suppliers,sellers and customers, if but asked. The credit function can and should support more and larger new and repeat sales, customer service and retention levels, marketing, sales, purchasing  and operations efforts… all while maintaining good cash flow and  controlling bad debt.

Due to a lack of understanding on the part of CEOs and business owners, they  don't ask more from their Credit Function resulting in a  missed profit  opportunity .  Most credit operations' ability to more fully contribute to profitability is not being utilized.

The accounting/finance function's responsibility to safeguard assets and it must have oversight regarding the credit function as with all business functions, but the credit and A/R management function should report directly to the CEO or in larger companies to the Operations area.

4) What is watched gets done. DSO (days sales outstanding), the average time it takes credit customers to pa
y and % bad debt are measurements of risks and if used to measure the performance of the credit and A/R management function will adversely impact profitability. The performance of the credit and A/R management function should be measured according to how it can  best contributes to profitability, and risk management is but one factor in the profit equation and not the desired solution.

How hard is credit working to find ways to approve profitable sales while remaining confident of payment? What % of the applied for dollars, pesos, euros, yuans, yen are approved? A good credit manager being measured and paid to focus on profit may well find ways to exceed the amount of credit  applied for by customers while remaining confident of payment.. A good credit manager properly trained and incentivised is worth 3 to 4 good sales people.

Credit customers paying on their accounts, even if not current, most often keep buying. Good credit customers allowed to become and stay delinquent  may take that next order elsewhere resulting in a negative impact on cash flow, the loss of a repeat sale (often the most profitable sale), and a chance that the customer may be lost forever to their new supplier and friend.

Past due accounts not dealt with in a timely and positive way may also result in negative word of mouth advertising for all too often  there are "issues" that must be resolved before a customer pays and the longer these "issues" go unidentified and unresolved the higher the cost of doing business… for all involved.

Past due A/R management is not "collections" , the enforcement of payment…it is about "completing the sale", about keeping credit customer paying and buying.
The credit function should be trained on how to identify the different types of past due customers (every past due will be 1 of 3 types) and on how to use a sales approach to deal with the different types. Past due A/R Management should be measured based on the % of credit customers paying….and BUYING. The incentive should be based on elevating profit levels and not on placing orders on credit holds/stops, on keeping good credit customers from buying. And yes there will be those credit customers, the smallest percentage, which represent a potential for loss (type 2 financial serious and type 3s). Potential bad debt can be identified early  and controlled by having the credit function determine what "type" every past dues falls into.

When something goes wrong somewhere credit customers don't pay, and Murphy was an optimist (Murphy's Law).  Fixing whatever went wrong, wherever it when wrong  will contribute to improved cash flow, repeat sales, customer service/retention levels and additionally if these "areas of opportunity for improvement" are tracked and then communicated to the operations function new levels of efficiencies and lower cost of doing business will result….measure and pay for "systems problems" identified, fixed and reported.

5) The costs incurred/investment made in extending trade credit include a. additional administrative expenses b. the cost of carrying a/r , the time and opportunity value of cash on hand c. bad debt losses from customers' failure to pay. So what is the greatest source of return from this investment in trade credit?

The most obvious answer would be more and larger profitable new and repeat sales while controlling losses. The less obvious answer is the support that the credit function can and should provide to customer service/retention, purchasing, marketing and sales efforts and to new levels of efficiency throughout the entire business chain of suppliers/customers/downline customers. Over the long term it is this last contribution of the credit function that may prove the most valuable.

Not to discount the value of knowing of a failing supplier that may also spell your own failure or of larger new and repeat sales and good cash flow, but being able to identify "areas of opportunities for improvement" is like getting a good compounded interest rate for not only does it drive down costs of doing business for your company , your customers and even your suppliers it also creates an open environment where thinking about improvements is allowed, encouraged and rewarded.

In too many companies credit management is still view and managed from an old and out of date "risk" perspective and is not being utilized to provide a competitive advantage. It is still often thought of as the ugly stepchild of accounting (as one CEO put it), as the place where sales go to die, as a cost center, a negative and of course as a necessary evil. Credit and A/R Management is about sales…and about much more.

The Author
Abe WalkingBear is an International Speaker / Trainer / Consultant on the subject of
cash flow / sales enhancement and business knowledge organization and use.
Developer of the copyrighted Profit System of B2B Credit Management, and President of www.abewalkingbear.com, he is the author of Profit Centered Credit and Collections 1999, co-author of STAFDA's Foundations of a Business 2007, and co-author of the new international book, The Best Kept Profit Secret: The Executive's Guide to Transforming a Cost Center 2009.

Bron: armg-usa.com